International relations

A neomedievalism, which is academically most grounded is neomedievalism in international relations. The general idea was first developed by Hedley Bull, a British theorist of international relations, in his “Anarchical society”.

Bull’s neomedievalism in international relations is reflected in:

“(1) the integration of countries into larger organizational units, with the European Union being an obvious example; (2) the disintegration of countries which become increasingly dependent on external players; (3) the collapse of the state monopoly on using violence, e.g. the emergence of private anti-state organizations (e.g. terrorist groups), seeking to take over the existing states or creating new ones; (4) the existence and development of supranational organizations – multinational corporations, global political movements, international non-governmental organizations, churches, intergovernmental organizations (e.g. the World Bank); and (5) technological unification of the world, or simply globalization (Bull does not use this term).”[1]

[1] Quoted: G. Lewicki, 2017.